The history of the world's most mysterious and disruptive financial institution – US Federal Reserve

История самого таинственного и подрывного финансового института в мире - Федерального резерва США

Федеральная Резервная Система СШАFrom time to time, the normal course of the planet's business activity is interrupted and prominent businessmen, bankers, stock traders, mutual fund managers, and along with them – Policy, ministers, drug dealers and an army of thousands of journalists, holding breath, listening to a lanky, puny old man named Alan Greenspan speaking (currently head FED is Ben Bernanke. approx. Victor), who, with the greatest profoundness, announces to the city and the world of raising or lowering the interest rate of federal funds (Fed Funds Rate - percentage, under which commercial banks have the right to lend money to each other for one night to maintain the federal deposit within the normal range. Established by the US Federal Reserve).

The old man closes his shaking mouth and a dead silence reigns over the planet ... Sha! Do not interfere with the best minds of mankind to assess the prospects for economic development in the context of the accomplished ritual! Five seconds, ten ... the next moment, the world's stock exchanges are covered with an atomic mushroom of hysterical activity, as a result of which the market in one spirit falls into the abyss or ascends to heaven.

Watching this ritual madness year after year, I am constantly lost in conjectures: who's the chicken here, and who is the egg? World Economy or Chairman of the Board of the Federal Reserve? Who determines and conditions whom, in the end? Understand, that in the modern economy the question of the primacy of the material or the ideal does not play any role - it has long been living according to different laws – the laws of social mythology. But not to the same extent! And than: kind of like Alan Greenspan - an ordinary elected official of a completely ordinary, in general,, departments. Why, then, even to the President of the United States, with his systematic bombing threats “wrong” states fail to cause even a hundredth of those shocks in world markets, which one expressionless old man effortlessly achieves? Nor give, neither take – basilevs, behind whose back rises an unknown state within a state - a kind of new American Vatican. What is it for?

Blooming garden

23 December 1913 the Federal Reserve System was created by the legislative act of the US Congress (FED), acting as a central bank. The Fed consists of seven Governors – Board members, headquartered in Washington, And 12 Reserve Banks, located in major cities of the country. In the preamble to the Federal Reserve Act (Federal Reserve Act) talks about the good goals of the undertaking: “To provide an elastic currency, rediscounting of commercial bills, establishing more effective supervision of banking in the United States and other objectives”.

The Fed Serves the American People faithfully (but for one – and to all mankind) already a solid period - almost 92 of the year, therefore, you can safely look at the results achieved. They are impressive. IN 1913 year, the national debt of the United States of America was just under three billion dollars. At the time of this writing, 24 May 2005 of the year, the national debt of the Main Bastion of Democracy has exceeded a phantasmagoric figure - 7 776 103 424 497,34! Seven trillion seven hundred seventy six billion one hundred three million four hundred twenty four thousand four hundred ninety seven dollars and 34 cent! Debt increases daily by 1 billion 680 million dollars.

You will not say anything - the guys served the fatherland gloriously. Through the efforts of the Fed, the once free nation has turned into a global liquidate , the welfare bubble of which will last exactly that long, how many central banks of third countries (primarily - Southeast Asia) agree to keep their reserves in dollars and buy US Treasury debt. What will happen, when, for example, Chinese and Japanese foreign exchange reserves will be converted into euros, even scary to imagine. The Great Depression of the Thirties Will Be Like a Walk in Paradise.

Wrote and doubted: Oh whether? What will happen, when will they transfer? Yes nothing will happen! Nothing will happen, because they will never translate. Never to any Central Bank “third countries” they won't allow anything to be translated anywhere - everyone will do that, what they will say. What is there - even thoughts about unauthorized transfers from “third countries” will not be born, tea, not suicidal. Take a look, with what equanimity and dignity Alan Greenspan turns the financial roulette wheel: quarter percent federal rate – there, quarter - back! You look, world economy, gripped by the worst crisis, and climbs out: after all, for five years now, the Dow Jones Industrial stock index has stubbornly teleported in a narrow corridor of values ​​from 10 to 11 thousand, masterly avoiding a collapse in, it would seem that, desperate situation!

Let's not guess, does Ayn Rand's pupil know something like that, which gives him confidence, or is he just bluffing, the main thing is to be filled with positive thinking and not make waves, because America itself will not sink - it will certainly drag everyone around it under the water. No need to raise waves, but getting to know the hidden mechanisms and the Fed's kitchen won't hurt. At least for that, so as not to rush around the world with bulging eyes, trying to liquidate Russia's ridiculous debt ahead of schedule.

  bubble, he is not there, and here;)

By the way, about debt: 100 billions of dollars of Russia's national debt are literally falling “progressive” mass media (from “Echo of Moscow” to “Washington Post”). The situation is painted with lethal paints: that and look, not today, tomorrow will remain from the hateful “Raska” only horns and legs. Now tell me: you have heard or read a lot about the eight-billion national debt of the United States of America? It seems like he is more of a debt of Russia in 80 once ... but no: calm and quiet, God's grace. Why did it happen? A rhetorical question. Let's do better “kitchen with mechanisms”.

Jekyll Island

In the official history of the Fed, you, Certainly, you will not find a word about the mysterious gathering, held in November 1910 years to Jekyll Island.

Meanwhile, This conspiracy dessert has been savored by the journalists for a long time. More beautiful than others – Bertie Charles Forbes, famous founder of the magazine of the same name. Already in 1916 year he shared good news with his compatriots: “Imagine a company of the most powerful bankers, sneaking out of New York in a private railroad car under cover of night. A hundred miles south they change to a mysterious boat, which takes them to a deserted island, inhabited by only a handful of servants. Bankers live on the island for a whole week in the strictest secrecy., referring to each other solely by name, so that the servants do not learn the names and tell the world about the strangest and most mysterious expedition in the financial history of America. I'm not fantasizing at all, but just being the first to reveal to the world the true story of the creation of the famous “Aldridge Currency Report”, underlying our new monetary system. The secrecy of the meeting was put at the forefront. The public shouldn't even have guessed what was going on. Senator Aldridge instructed each participant, so that he slipped into a private carriage unnoticed, filed by order of the railway authorities on an abandoned platform. The ubiquitous New York reporters are fools ... Nelson (Aldridge) warned Henry, Frank, Paul and Pyatt, that they would have to stay locked up on Jekyll Island away from civilization until then, until a scientific monetary program for the United States is developed.

This is how the Federal Reserve System was born - it was created on Jekyll Paul Island, Frank and henry”.

As you can see, transporting conspirators in sealed railroad cars at dawn 20 century popular on both sides of the ocean. And yet something in history “Jekyll Islands” not so. The stilts of the provincial theater stick out too deliberately: “nameless club”, “night car”, “deceived journalists”, “island in the ocean”... For simple confidentiality, the privacy in a suburban home of any of the participants was enough.. What is all Halloween for then?? For that reason, so that in a couple of months information about the mysterious rally became the property of the political get-together ... and even with the filing of the participants themselves?!

You will not believe, but just for this! Generations of conspiracy theorists have reveled in details “secret conspiracy”, without noticing it, which literally lay on the surface: operation “Jekyll” was originally conceived ... to fail! And all the baroque surroundings in the style of Edgar Alan Poe served, albeit an unusual, but a mundane task: increase public opposition to the Central Bank project, actively lobbied by the Republicans at the suggestion of the Wall Street bankers.

The idea was crowned with success: “Aldridge's plan” failed in Congress, Republicans lost majority in both chambers, and their president, William Howard Taft, suffered a crushing election defeat, losing the Oval Office to Democrat Woodrow Wilson (1912 G.). In defiance of the Republicans, the Democrats put forward their own “Federal Reserve Act”, which was approved in Congress 23 December 1913 of the year.

I foresee the reader's bewilderment: “Nice success turned out! Something does not grow together ...” Well then hold on tight: position of democratic “Federal Reserve Law” ... they repeat almost word for word “Aldridge's plan”, designed by a mysterious “A nameless club” on Jekyll Island!

How do you like this combination? Machiavelli would cry with envy. Let's try to figure it out.

Familyless Club

While one thing is clear: people, cranked a gesheft with the Fed, were clearly out of politics. Rather - over politics, since all active political forces are Republicans, democrats and “progressives” – obediently carried out the program launched from above. Only in this situation can the lightness be explained, with which “Familyless Club” parted with his Republican column and entrusted the implementation of the task to the Democrats. The public does not like Senator Aldridge and the Wall Street bankers behind him, poor english speaking? No problem! Remove Republican Aldridge and promote Democratic Senator Carter Glass, which will propose the legal Siamese twin for consideration by the Congress. The influence is colossal, money is not enough.

  Windows Performance Index

It is logical to unravel the tangle of domineering priorities from the participants of the May Day on Jekyll Island. I represent members “Nameless club”:

Senator Nelson Aldridge – head of the National Monetary Commission (НВК, National Monetary Commission), created by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1908 year to study the prospects for changing the monetary system of the United States. NVK spent the first two years in Europe, studying “experience of the central banks of leading countries”, where the allocated budget was successfully capitalized in 300 one thousand dollars. Currency reform plan, developed on Jekyll Island, it was presented to Congress as a result of the three-year activity of the Commission. I didn't like the plan and as soon as Congress became interested in the money spent, NVK announced its self-dissolution in connection with the fulfillment of the tasks assigned to it. Nelson Aldridge entered the Senate as a middle-class wholesaler, however, after a couple of years, he turned into the most influential multimillionaire politician. Nelson found his golden key, becoming John Rockefeller's father-in-law.
Aldridge's personal secretary Shelton is a performing figure and is not interesting for our history.
Payette Andrew - Harvard Professor, assistant finance minister (Dep. Of Treasury) USA. IN “familyless club” participated as a representative “disinterested academia”, generously grants from John Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan.
Frank Vanderlip – President of the National City Bank of New York, the flagship of the financial empire of John Rockefeller.
Henry Davison - Senior Partner at J.P. Morgan.
Charles Norton - President of New York's First National Bank, controlled by J.P. Morgan.
Benjamin Strong - assistant to J.P. Morgan.
Paul Warburg - Partner of the Financial House “Redemption, Leib and Company”, heir to the German financial empire of the Warburgs.

A simple listing of names is enough to, to outline in the first approximation a circle of faces, interested in the implementation of the project to create the American Central Bank. These are three groups: JP Morgan, John Rockefeller and the House of Finance “Redemption, Leib and Company”.

A think tank “Nameless club” was Paul Warburg. Firstly, being a world-class professional banker, he knew the financial intricacies of the issue better than the rest, therefore, he personally formulated the lion's share of the provisions as “Aldridge's plan”, so the future “Federal Reserve Act”. Secondly, Paul Warburg, in a sense, served as the chief overseer for the introduction of the Fed in the United States.

Warburg immigrated to America in 1897 year, became a partner in “Redemption, Leib”, and already in 1903 outlined a detailed plan to Jacob Schiff, chapter “Redemption, Leib”, well known to readers as the main friend and sponsor of the Russian Bolsheviks. Of course, Schiff and Warburg had warm family ties.: Jacob Schiff was the son-in-law of Solomon Leib, co-founder of the company “Redemption, Leib”, and Paul Warburg was the husband of Nina Leib, daughter of Solomon Leib from his second wife. The incestuous climax came after, how Jacob Schiff's daughter Frida married Paul Warburg's brother Felix, also partner in “Redemption, Leib”.

Paul Warburg had a cyclopean task. Suffice it to say, that the central bank system is contrary to the very constitutional foundations of the United States. Let's say, The Fed is directly involved in the issue of money, whereas article 1, partition 8, paragraph 5 Of the Constitution unambiguously reserves the right “mint a coin, regulate its value and the value of a foreign coin, set units of measures and weights” behind the Congress.

It is no coincidence that from the very first steps Paul Warburg and his associates from the houses of Rockefeller and Morgan constantly camouflaged the real goal of the initiative - transferring control over the issue and distribution of credit resources into the hands of a limited group of the international financial elite..

The first smokescreen was the deliberate rejection of the use of the word “Central Bank” and its euphemic substitution for “Federal Reserve”, intended to emphasize “people's democratic” spirit of initiative. Another element of disguise: delegating the rights of the Fed to allegedly independent elected directors and 12 independent regional reserve banks.

When the haze has cleared, the law was passed, and the Federal Reserve System is up and running, it turned out, that all regional banks were either correspondents, or were directly dependent on the New York giant banks Morgan, Rockefeller, Schiff. With distribution “independent” posts, everything turned out to be in perfect order too. US President Woodrow Wilson later confessed, that he was only allowed to appoint one person (Thomas Jones) to the Federal Reserve Board, the rest were sent by New York bankers. Here are these people:

Adolph Miller – economist at Rockefeller University of Chicago and Morgan Harvard

Charles Hamlin - wealthy Boston lawyer, Morgan's inner circle

Frederick Delano - head “Wobash Railroad Company”, controlled by Rockefeller

Warren Harding - President of the First National Bank of Atlanta, Rockefeller's protégé

  A cautionary tale in investment

Paul Warburg - our old friend, whose portrait perfectly complements the secret report, made in 1918 year by the US Navy Intelligence Service: “Naturalized in 1911 year, awarded by the Kaiser of Germany in 1912 year, vice chairman of the fed, was engaged in the supply of large sums of money from Germany to Lenin and Trotsky. Has a brother, Max Warburg, who heads the German State Security Service”. Such is the wonderful spiritual father of the American Central Bank.

The Board, but, the power structure of the Fed is not limited to. The so-called Federal Advisory Council is secretly supervising its activities., which the, in fact, and forms the entire monetary and credit policy of the American Central Bank. This is done quietly and strictly behind the scenes.. James Forgan became the first chairman of the FCC, President of the First National Bank of Chicago. At first, Forgan was considered the most implacable opponent of the introduction of the Central Bank system in America., however, over time, smoothly migrated to the camp of ardent supporters. It is understandable: the first in the list of correspondents of the Morgan First National Bank of New York is the bank of the First National Bank of Chicago, and the first in the list of correspondents of Bank Forgana is the Manhattan Bank, ruled by Jacob Schiff and Paul Warburg.

Now about the main and most paradoxical. U.S. Federal Reserve, conducting all dollar emission and determining the credit policy of the largest economy in the world, is an, in fact, private company!

Fed shares are owned by regional reserve banks, which in turn, belong to the same limited number of the global financial elite. The big picture can be imagined using the example of the Federal Bank of New York, dominating the Fed and fully determining the policy of the entire structure. 19 May 1914 of the year the Federal Bank of New York registered with the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 203 thousands 53 stock, out of which 30 thousand shares were acquired by the National City Bank of New York (joint office of Rockefeller and “Redemption, Leib”) And 15 thousand shares went to the First National Bank of J.P. Morgan. At the time of the merger of these banks into 1955 year, their joint share in the Federal Bank of New York amounted to a quarter of all shares. The rest of the shares went to the European Rothschilds, brothers Lazar (Eugene Meyer's company), European Warburgs, brothers Lehman and “Goldman Sachs”.

They don't like me here

Reader, I guess, drew attention to the fact, that all the Fed's financial vectors lead to Europe, except for one - J.P. Morgan. It's time to eliminate this misunderstanding too.

Once upon a time “J.P. Morgan Company” was called completely differently: “George Peabody and Company”. At the beginning 19 century, George Peabody was modestly engaged in the wholesale manufactory and the slave trade. IN 1935 he opened a representative office in London, since almost all of his business was associated with the former metropolis. So old George would have remained an ordinary merchant, if not for an unexpected invitation, which he received from Baron Nathan Meer Rothschild. How the uncrowned king of England came out on Peabody shrouded in historical obscurity, however, the essence of the transaction is known, offered to a humble American: since Rothschild had a very tense relationship with the British aristocracy (of course - everyone was in Nathan's debts!), he invited Peabody to open a salon in London to organize the most luxurious social events. Of course, Baron Nathan covered all expenses. George Peabody was a humble man, though, but very savvy, so I guessed right away: even idiots do not refuse such offers.

After a couple of years, receptions at Peabody's house, timed to coincide with American Independence Day, already thundered all over London. Is it worth it to say, that the modest business of the former American slave trader quickly grew out of the provincial redingot, becoming a serious international gesheft? What investments? I beg of you: no dirt!

The American agent for George Peabody's company was a Boston firm “Bibi and Morgan”, ruled by Junius Morgan, father of John Pierpoint. Old Peabody had no children and liked young Junius a lot.. IN 1864 year Morgan-father became a junior partner in the company “George Peabody”, and after the death of the benefactor, continued honorary representation of the greatest financial house of the planet in America. Of course, changing the name of the company to “Junius S. Morgan Company”.

Epilogue

Now, reader, inspired by new knowledge, open your wallet, extract a painfully familiar green piece of paper into the light of day and read, what is written at the very top: A FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE. Translated from financial English, this means: “Federal Reserve Debt”. That's it: not gold or silver equivalent, no obligation of the Government of the United States of America, and a bill of exchange of a cheerful private company, whose founders you just met.

The same company, which brought America's national debt to 8 trillion dollars!

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