Ticker (English. ticker symbol) - short name of quoted instruments (Shares, bonds, indices) in stock information. Is a unique identifier within one exchange or information system. Used for that, so as not to constantly print in the bulletins the full name of securities or other objects of trade.
A short name is usually one to six characters long and is assigned to a security when it is listed. Capital letters of the Latin alphabet are traditionally used.. These are usually abbreviations or short names. (International Business Machines — IBM), abbreviations or truncations of names (Microsoft — MSFT, RAO UES of Russia - EESR). Numeric and alphanumeric tickers are commonly used on Asian exchanges, adapted for international trade. For example, Toshiba ticker on the Tokyo Stock Exchange - 6502.
Some companies have several different tickers, which are used on different exchanges. For example, Wimm-Bill-Dann on the stock exchange NYSE has the ticker WBD, and on RTS - WBDF.
Term the ticker comes from the name of a specialized telegraph (ticker machine), which was used for the prompt transfer of exchange information.
History of exchange names
В Великобритании, to 1996 of the year, stock cuts were called EPIC, by the abbreviation of the information system (English. Exchange Price Information Computer) on the London Stock Exchange. After renaming to 1996 the system received a new abbreviation TIDM (English. Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics), but they are still often called EPIC. Shares are also identified by number (English. Stock Exchange Daily Official List, SEDOL).
Along with the term ticker, Russian exchanges use the term code: trade code, security code, instrument code, stock code. This terminology is ambiguous., because now the securities receive an international security identification code, which is a required requisite and an unambiguous identifier, but which is not used when publishing exchange information.
On the RTS stock exchange, shares of companies have different tickers depending on the system in which they are traded.. For example, the shares of Sberbank of Russia have the ticker SBER for the classic market and SBERG for the exchange market.
Usually the term is used in English. Stock Symbol (биржевое название).
Initially, one company could have many exchange names, which were assigned different trading systems and which did not depend on each other.
Modern stock tickers are unique for each company and are represented only by letters. The basis of this system was developed by Standard & Poor’s (S&P). This was the beginning of the formation of the corresponding national standard..
Традиционно, length of tickers on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) - 1—3 characters, on NASDAQ и Over-the-Counter Bulletin Board (OTCBB) — 4 символа, on other US exchanges - 2-3 symbols. Longer tickers are associated with the base and indicate modification. In this case, the addition has the standardized form (suffix) and contains additional information. On NASDAQ and OTCBB, this is the fifth additional symbol, on the NYSE, the character after the dot. 10 July 2007 of the year, the US Securities Trading Commission decided to relax existing rules and allow companies to retain the three-letter ticker when moving from NYSE and AMEX to NASDAQ. This decision does not apply to one and two-letter exchange symbols., and also does not allow new three-letter tickers to be registered on NASDAQ, who do not migrate from other exchanges.
Exchange names of preferred shares (English. preferred stock) are not standardized and may differ in different trading systems.
Some companies use the trademark of their products as a ticker. For example Sun Microsystems with 27 august 2007 of the year has the ticker JAVA (in honor of the Java programming language created by the company), and the brewery Anheuser-Busch has the ticker BUD (her main brand).
In Genentech DNA ticker (DNA) - the object of research of the company.
Steinway Musical Instruments uses the LVB ticker, which decrypt, as Ludwig van Beethoven (Ludwig van Beethoven) - in honor of the great composer and pianist.
The ticker can be a phonetically consonant letter combination. Exxon had the ticker XON prior to the merger with Mobil Oil (exon), and after the merger - HOM. Southwest Airlines chooses LUV ticker (лав), consonant with the name of the company's home airport - Love Field near Dallas, and also the English word love (English. love).
Ticker AT&T (former telephony monopoly, with which the word telephone is associated on Wall Street - telephone) - the only letter T.
Исторически, telegraph operators were the first to use short names in the 19th century, to transfer information at a higher speed. One-letter abbreviations stuck to companies, which shares were most often resold. Then it was mainly railway companies. :
- A: Agilent Technologies
- B: Barnes Group
- C: Citigroup
- D: Dominion Resources
- E: eni, S.p.A
- F: Ford Motor Company
- G: Genpact
- K: Kellogg
- M: Macy’s, Inc.
- O: Realty Income Corporation
- Q: Qwest Communications International Inc.
- R: Ryder System Inc.
- S: Sprint Nextel
- T: AT&T
- V: Visa Inc.
- X: United States Steel
- Y: Alleghany Corporation
- Z: Test Ticker (NASD TEST SYMBOL)