What's after oil. What will be the green fuel of the future

What's after oil. What will be the green fuel of the future

Course on energy transition, in which it is planned to switch from "dirty" coal, oil and gas for cleaner energy sources, remains relevant, despite the current shortage of fossil fuels in world markets.

Lack of traditional energy sources, On the one side, sobered the world community and made a more conservative approach to the timing of the transition to ESG fuel. On the other hand, he emphasized the need to diversify energy resources, especially in countries, which traditionally act as importers of hydrocarbons.

Development of alternative energy - a long-term history. But already now, individual companies and entire countries are presenting their projects and roadmaps for the development of new types of fuel.. See, what is proposed to replace good old fossil fuels.

Aircraft running on vegetable oil

The aviation industry accounts for about 2,5% global CO2 emissions, while there is no alternative to jet engines on the horizon. Therefore, the use of a special low-carbon fuel seems to be a logical solution. (Sustainable aviation fuel, PURE) instead of traditional kerosene.

Oil giant Royal Dutch Shell plans to 2025 G. to establish large-scale production of SAF from waste vegetable oil, vegetable and animal fats. Biofuel processing plant with capacity 820 thousand. tons per year can be launched in 2024 G. Another European company, Neste, which already produces 100 thousand. tons of SAF per year, planning to 2023 G. increase supplies to 1 million tons.

The main problem of SAF, like other alternative fuels, is the high cost. Fuel is several times more expensive than ordinary kerosene. Therefore, since the opening, the production level of SAF has remained very modest., it accounts for no more 0,1% global demand for aviation fuel.

  Review of the "Positive Group": new IT representative on the Russian stock market

Read also: What could be more important than profit. ESG Dictionary for Investors

The European Union decided to support the implementation of SAF with regulatory measures in the form of additional taxes for air carriers, using non-environmentally friendly fuels. taxes заработают уже с 2023 G. and can provide SAF manufacturers with a sales market. Truth, how it is planned to mitigate the negative impact on the passenger traffic of the multiple increase in the cost of air tickets, not reported yet.

Biogas from manure and waste

Under the influence of several types of bacteria, methane can be obtained from biomass - a key component of natural gas. Grass can be used as biomass, grain, manure, household waste, fish and slaughterhouse waste, fruit pulp, potato processing waste and other by-products of the agro-industry.

The first biogas plant appeared in 1859 G. Today the maximum number of biogas plants operates in China (15 million) and India (10 million). Agricultural enterprises remain the main area of ​​application, who use them for recycling and efficient resource management. According to the IEA, biogas has great potential and can replace up to 20% of all natural gas consumed by the world.

In Russia, the potential for the use of biogas in agriculture is very high. At some enterprises, it is already actively used.. For example, a modern biogas station operates at the production of the agricultural holding Goldman Group, which this year made its debut with its bonds on the St. Petersburg Stock Exchange.

Artificial oil from water and air

In early October, the Associated Press published the news that, that the Atmosfair eco-group and Siemens Corporation built the world's first plant in Germany, which will become an experimental site for the production of synthetic oil from renewable sources.

The plant will generate hydrogen by electrolysis of water, using energy from four nearby wind farms. In the next step, hydrogen will mix with carbon dioxide, extracted from air and biogas plant. The resulting synthetic oil will be used to produce jet fuel. When such fuel is burned, the same amount of carbon dioxide will enter the atmosphere., how much was spent on its production.

  Ten most stupid and expensive mistakes of stock market players

The cost of such fuel is quite high, but expected, that carbon taxes in the EU will make it competitive. Now all that remains is to prove the efficiency and scalability of the technology.. IN 2022 G. it is planned to produce small batches of about 8 barrels per day.

Multicolored hydrogen

Hydrogen fuel has been known for a long time. Compared to hydrocarbons, there are no harmful emissions when it is burned, making hydrogen one of the priority alternatives for natural gas. Hydrogen has its downsides, which held back the development of hydrogen energy in the past, but EU carbon taxes could be a good incentive for the industry.

A special classification has been developed in Europe. Hydrogen can be gray depending on production and CO2 emissions, Yellow, blue or green.

Gray and blue hydrogen is produced from natural gas by steam reforming - a chemical process, as a result of which hydrogen and carbon dioxide are obtained from methane and water. If CO2 is released into the atmosphere, then hydrogen is called "gray". If CO2 is captured, then hydrogen is called "blue".

Yellow and green hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water. If electricity, used in production, obtained from atomic energy, then hydrogen is called yellow. If renewable energy is used (renewable energy sources), hydrogen is called green. As it is not difficult to guess from the name, green hydrogen is most preferred.

Russia is seriously concerned about the development of hydrogen energy, and already in 2024–2025. Gazprom and Rosatom plan to launch 4 pilot projects, including the production of "green" hydrogen in the Kaliningrad region for the European market and on Sakhalin for consumers in Asia. The volume of hydrogen exports to 2024 G. may amount to 200 thousand. tons of hydrogen per year.

Where to get green energy? Borrow from a neighbor

Until alternative fuels are widely used, in the power industry are actively replacing the traditional generation of renewable (VIE). Mostly, wind and solar. Sometimes this leads to unexpected solutions..

  Oil futures in the red, Russian oil is getting cheaper. What's happening

The key issue of renewable energy sources is stability, or rather, her absence. United Kingdom, wind farm, fully feels this disadvantage during periods of calm. The situation became especially acute in 2021 G., when prices for traditional gas generation, compensating for the power drop on wind turbines, began to hurt the wallet.

To ensure uninterrupted power supply, the country has stretched the world's longest submarine cable North Sea Link, which connected the city of Blyth in the north of the country with the Norwegian village of Quilldal, where is the local hydroelectric power station. Cable length 725 km and carrying capacity 1,4 GW is intended to provide electricity 1,4 million British homes and solve the energy crisis. According to BBC, the cable was put into operation in early October. How long such a solution will prove to be - time will tell.

More useful information for investors you will find on BCS Express.

Scroll to Top